Leaf Spot (fungal)
Leaf Spot: Plant Diseases Guide -Causes, Damage, Prevention, and Control-
What are Fungal Leaf Spot Diseases?
Leaf spots (also known as anthracnose, scab, leaf blotch, and shot hole) are generally distinct patches of different sizes, shapes, and patterns. A golden halo surrounds the area, which may be produced by bacteria or fungus. If caused by a fungus, there is almost always fungal development of some kind in the affected area, especially in moist conditions. This fungal growth can take the form of small pimple-like formations, which are frequently black in appearance, or a moldy development of spores.
To observe these structures, it is typically required to use a hand lens. Diseased regions may come together to produce uneven patches known as “blotches” if they are numerous or closer together. The popular names of leaf spot illnesses might be generic, such as bacterial leaf spot, descriptive, like frog-eye leaf spot, or fungus-specific, like Septoria leaf spot. The plants they affects are;
- Fruit trees / Vegetable Plants
- Perennials/ Annuals
- House Plants
What is the Cause of Leaf Spot Diseases?
Fungal leaf spot illnesses are caused by a variety of fungus, many of which are closely related. Each one targets a distinct or closely similar type of plant. Fungal leaf spot infections are usually harsher on stressed plants, such as those growing in the incorrect location or under improper circumstances, as well as those suffering from water stress and nutritional shortages. They become active in the spring, and the spores are easily transported by the wind, rapidly spreading from leaf to leaf and plant to plant. They either overwinter as latent illnesses on the plant, generating spores that infect plants the following spring, or they overwinter as spores on fallen leaves.
Signs and Symptoms
Spots on the leaves are the most common sign of a leaf spot illness. The size and color of the spots will vary based on the plant, the organism involved, and the stage of growth. Spots are usually brownish, although they can also be tan or black. The presence of circular rings or dark borders is common. Fungal bodies might show in the spots as black dots in rings or in a single clump. Blotches can occur when the spots mix or expand over time. Anthracnose is a term used to describe angular spots or blotches. The leaves may become yellow and fall off early.
Prevention and Control
Rake up and dispose of fallen leaves before the first snowfall to remove areas where illnesses can persist and re-infect the next growing season. Plants should not be overcrowded; instead, utilize mature size as spacing guidance when planting. Prune trees and bushes to let more light in and enhance air circulation. Wet conditions encourage illness, therefore water trees at the base and avoid splashing water on the foliage.
Fertilize plants and shrubs suffering from leaf spot diseases only if a soil test recommends it to remedy a nutrient shortage. Unless a tree has lost all of its leaves for multiple years in a row, fungicides are not required. Fungicides are preventative measures that must be taken before symptoms emerge on the leaves. Keep plants developing as vigorously as possible to help them resist disease threats. When a big infection develops, however, it may be difficult to stop its spread. While damaged leaves will always have discolored patches, these cannot be removed – it is critical to keep them from spreading further.